Lab study supports idea of ‘cytokine storm’ in H5N1 flu

first_img See also: Nov 16, 2005 (CIDRAP News) – A recent laboratory study has produced more evidence that infection of human lung cells with the H5N1 avian influenza virus leads to intense inflammation similar to what was seen in victims of the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic. The H5N1 viruses were “more potent inducers” of cytokines and chemokines—chemical messengers that trigger inflammation—than H1N1 viruses were, says the report by a team led by J.S.M. Peiris of the University of Hong Kong. A flood of inflammation-triggering chemicals released by the immune systems has been referred to as a “cytokine storm.” Autopsies of H5N1 avian flu victims in Vietnam and elsewhere have revealed lungs choked with debris from the excessive inflammation triggered by the virus. Similar severe lung damage was frequently reported in victims of the 1918 pandemic, which disproportionately killed people with the strongest immune systems—young, healthy adults. The Hong Kong researchers sought to test their hypothesis that the H5N1 virus’s ability to trigger a flood of cytokines may contribute to the unusually severe disease it causes in humans. They used H5N1 viruses isolated from a patient who died of the infection in Hong Kong in 1997 and from two Vietnamese patients who were infected in 2004, plus an ordinary H1N1 virus isolated in Hong Kong in 1998. Chan MCW, Cheung CY, Chui WH, et al. Proinflamatory cytokine responses induced by influenza A(H5N1) viruses in primary human alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Respir Res 2005 (published online Nov 11) [Abstract] Laboratory cultures of human alveolar cells and bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to these viruses. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the researchers assessed the levels of various cytokines and chemokines at several time intervals after infection. “We have found that infection with H5N1 viruses led to the production of 10 times higher levels of cytokines from human cells than normal human flu viruses,” said Peiris, as quoted Nov 12 in The Standard, a Chinese business newspaper.center_img Researchers from Hong Kong report that lung cells growing in a laboratory responded much more intensely to the H5N1 virus than to an ordinary flu virus, even though the viruses reproduced at about the same rate, according to the report published online by Respiratory Research. They found that all the H5N1 viruses caused cells to secrete significantly higher levels of IP-10 (interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10), interferon beta, a type of T cell known as RANTES, and interleukin-6 than the H1N1 virus did. In addition, the 2004 versions of H5N1 caused cells to release more IP-10 at 6 hours than the 1997 version did. Oct 11 CIDRAP News story “Experts cite differences between H5N1 and ordinary flu” The different cytokine responses are not explained by different viral growth rates, because all three virus subtypes replicated with similar efficiency, the article says. “The cellular mechanisms underlying this differential cytokine hyper-induction by H5N1 viruses are presently poorly understood,” it states. The report says previous research has shown that patients with H5N1 disease have higher levels of IP-10 and other chemokines in their blood than do people infected with ordinary flu, a finding that parallels the present laboratory findings. In addition, the article says that studies of recombinant flu viruses carrying genes from the 1918 pandemic virus showed that the recombinant viruses were highly lethal and induced high levels of macrophage-derived chemokines in mice. However, it is not yet clear whether the increased chemokine levels were due to “hyper-induction” of the chemokines or just rapid growth of the virus.last_img read more

Crude oil tanker bursts into flames in Medan, injuring 22

first_imgKhaidir, a 27-year-old ship worker who was at the port around the time of the incident, said he heard the sounds of an explosion and saw a column of thick smoke rising from the oil tanker at 8:30 a.m. He immediately ran away from the fire to save himself.“I heard multiple explosions from the ship. Then I saw fire and smoke soon after,” he told The Jakarta Post.Local authorities struggled to put out the resulting flames until 3 p.m. as the remaining oil stored in the ship’s cargo had caught fire, the police said.“We still couldn’t go anywhere near [the scene], because the ship is still on fire. We will [deploy personnel] once the fire has been extinguished to put up police lines, and to search for any remaining victims,” Belawan Police chief Adj. Sr. Comr. Dayan told the press on Monday afternoon. Based on preliminary reports, at least 22 people sustained burns from the fire and had since been given medical treatment, he said.“All of the injured victims are currently being treated at Prima Cipta Husada Hospital and Navy Hospital,” Dayan said, adding that the authorities were still unable to confirm any casualties.“We are still investigating the cause of the fire,” he said.KPLP director Ahmad said in a statement that several local stakeholders were involved in the evacuation, including the Belawan Port Authority, state-owned port operator Pelindo I and the Belawan Fire and Rescue Agency.  “Three ships helped extinguish the flames from the sea,” Ahmad said, adding that the ships belonged to Pelindo I and PT Waruna Nusa Sentana. (rfa)Topics : At least 22 workers were injured and tens of other crew members trapped when crude oil tanker Jag Leela exploded into flames at Belawan Port in Medan, North Sumatra, on Monday morning.The injured victims were immediately rushed to the nearest hospitals, while those who were trapped inside the burning vessel awaited assistance from a search and rescue team.The explosion occurred when the ship was about to dock at the Waruna Shipyard in the port, according to the Transportation Ministry’s Indonesian Coast and Sea Guard (KPLP).last_img read more

Women’s tennis gears up for crosstown rivalry match

first_imgFollowing a 7-0 sweep of San Diego State, the No. 22 USC women’s tennis team prepares for a matchup with its crosstown rival, No. 20 UCLA. The Bruins will come to Marks Stadium on Saturday for a noon tilt with the Trojans. The match, however, will not count toward Pac-12 play.But despite the fact that it doesn’t have direct conference implications, pride will be at stake, as is the case with any matchup between the Trojans and Bruins. The match has significant weight towards the annual Crosstown Cup, with the winner of Saturday’s match taking home 5 points (out of 10 allotted for the sport) for their school. USC has won the Crosstown Cup 10 out of the past 15 years, but the Trojans are currently trailing 45-35 to the Bruins. A win this weekend against their historic rival would help the Trojans’ cause significantly.The Bruins are led by freshman Ena Shibahara, currently ranked No. 3 in the ITA rankings, and No. 91 redshirt freshman Jada Hart. Both women have been selected as Pac-12 Player of the Week recently, with Hart getting the honor on Jan. 30 and Shibahara a week later on Feb. 6. The doubles team of Hart and Shibahara is currently ranked No. 12 in the country. The doubles team of Hart and junior Terry Fleming is also ranked at No. 38. Before their match with USC, UCLA will host Pepperdine on Friday in Westwood.The Trojans have time to wait and prepare for the Bruins. With a 7-0 sweep of San Diego State nearly two weeks ago, the Trojans improved their record to 3-1 on the season. Despite its win over the Aztecs, USC slipped from No. 18 to No. 22 in the ITA rankings. Junior Gabby Smith, went from unranked to the No. 25 singles player in the country. Smith, currently riding a nine-match win streak will look to keep the train rolling. Smith’s impressive run has included beating five ranked opponents. Other Trojans in the ITA top 100 include sophomore Jessica Failla (No. 61), senior Zoë Katz (No. 62) and junior Madison Westby (No. 82). In the ITA doubles rankings, the pair of Katz and Westby rose from the No. 27 to the No. 14 ranking. USC has two other ranked doubles teams including Katz and Smith (No. 47) and Failla and sophomore Rianna Valdes (No. 55).In a historically close matchup, USC has a slight lead over their rival Bruins with a 50-44 all-time record. In their last matchup with UCLA in April 2016, the Trojans defended their home court with a 4-1 win that sent USC to the Pac-12 Championship.Weather conditions on Friday led to a cancellation of USC’s matchup against No. 1 Florida, and the match will not be rescheduled. With 17 days between their win against San Diego State and their match against their rival from Westwood, the Trojans will be well rested, while the Bruins will have to recover quickly from their match on Friday.last_img read more

Manziel says he’s battling playbook, Hoyer

first_imgCleveland Browns quarterbacks Johnny Manziel (2) and Brian Hoyer watch teammates at the NFL football team’s training camp in Berea, Ohio, Thursday, July 31, 2014. (AP Photo/Aaron Josefczyk)BEREA, Ohio (AP) — Johnny Manziel says he’s competing with more than Brian Hoyer in the competition to be Cleveland’s starting quarterback.Manziel said “it’s really me versus the playbook right now.” Following Thursday’s practice, the rookie QB acknowledged he’s had some ups and downs in his first week in training camp as he learns Cleveland’s offense. Manziel, though, believes he’s making some progress.Browns offensive coordinator Kyle Shanahan said there is no clear leader between Hoyer and Manziel. Shanahan is hoping one of the QBs takes off and makes the decision easier for Cleveland’s coaching staff.Hoyer said he’s not worrying about his battle with Manziel as much as trying to make the Browns better.Manziel has yet to work with Cleveland’s first-string offense, but coach Mike Pettine said that will change soon.___Online:AP NFL website: www.pro32.ap.org and www.twitter.com/AP_NFLlast_img read more

Leafs outlast Braves 5-4 to capture home opener

first_imgNelson Leafs scored three times in the first period en route to a 5-4 victory over the Spokane Braves in Kootenay International Junior Hockey League action Friday night at the NDCC Arena.Kolten Nelson scored twice to lead the Leafs to a second consecutive win over the Braves.Nelson bounced Spokane 6-2 Saturday in the Lilac City. Leafs dominated the Braves early as Nelson, Sawyer Hunt and Eamonn Miller scored in the opening frame to give the home side a 3-0 advantage.After Hunt scored, the shot clock read 10-1 in favour of the Leafs.Nelson increased its lead to 5-1 in the third as Nelson and Sam Weber scored before the Braves rallied to make the game close.Blake Halfpenny and Trail Thompson with a pair made the score close in the final period. Greg Lind had the other marker, scoring on the power play, for Spokane.Jason Sandhu registered his second win of the season in goal over the Braves as Nelson outshot Spokane 33-26.Leafs travel to Castlegar Saturday to face the Rebels. Castlegar served up the first loss of the season to Beaver Valley as the Sunflower City squad outlasted the Hawks 7-6.The win was also the Rebels first of the season after losing twice on a trip to the East Kootenay.last_img read more